Although the agreement was welcomed by many people, including French President François Hollande and UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon, criticism also emerged. For example, James Hansen, a former NASA scientist and climate change expert, expressed anger that most of the deal is made up of “promises” or goals and not firm commitments.  He called the Paris talks a fraud without “no deeds, only promises” and believes that only an interterritorial tax on CO2 emissions, which is not part of the Paris Agreement, would reduce CO2 emissions fast enough to avoid the worst effects of global warming.  On October 5, 2016, when the agreement received enough signatures to cross the threshold, U.S. President Barack Obama said, “Even if we achieve every goal. We will only reach part of where we need to go. He also said that “this agreement will help delay or avoid some of the worst consequences of climate change. On the contrary, emissions targets for each nation were negotiated separately and must be applied voluntarily, leading U.S. officials to view the Paris Agreement as an executive agreement and not a legally binding treaty. This dispelled the requirement for the U.S. Congress to ratify the agreement.  In April 2016, the United States became a signatory to the Paris Agreement and accepted it by executive order in September 2016. President Obama has committed the United States to contribute $3 billion to the Green Climate Fund.  The Fund has set itself the goal of raising $100 billion a year by 2020.
Some U.S. policymakers, particularly Al Gore, agreed and insisted that “no deal is perfect and needs to be strengthened over time, but groups in all sectors of society will now begin to reduce the dangerous carbon pollution through this agreement.”  According to the organizing committee at the beginning of the talks, the key expected result was to reach an agreement to limit global warming to “a level well below 2°C” Celsius compared to pre-industrial levels. The agreement provides that, in the second half of the twenty-first century, net anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions will be zero. . . .